CHAMBER MUSIC FESTIVAL
THE SIXTEENTH SEASON
July 10-August- 22, 1988
BRAZIL. ..To most Americans the name conjures up the sultry samba nights of Carnaval, the serpentine Amazon, a pastiche of cultural meanderings and immense geographical embrace. From batucada to bossa nova, Brazilian music chronicles such a vast expanse that it defies generic description. A listing of important musical contributors is a veritable litany of Brazilian "patron saints" of music.
There are, though, many similarities between the development of contemporary music in Brazil and America, most notably, a similarity in progression, if not in style. In both countries there is a large body of indigenous music; both incorporate African and European elements; each influenced the other; and, presently, their contemporary stylings draw on all these historical contributions and carry them uniquely into their idiosyncratic futures.
Perhaps the greatest difference in the developments of American and Brazilian music has been in the degree of historic cultural assimilation. While America isolated its indigenous and African people, Brazil, for the most part incorporated them and, therefore their music. For example, on many Ameri can plantations Africans were forbidden to recreate their traditional instruments. So it was their vocal music that was carried into gospel, blues and jazz styles. Typical West African instruments such as the six-stringed dosongoni virtually disappeared, although the dosongoni later reemerged in another
form, the banjo. In Brazil, on the other hand, many of
the traditional instruments remained intact and eventually became important aspects of contemporary music. The one-stringed berimbau with its roots in Angola is an extant example.
The contribution of Europe to Brazilian music is clearly more singular than in America with its "melting pot" tradition. The Portuguese influence is certainly the most dominant European influence on Brazilian music but, of course, not the only one. Italian "salon'' music was popular in the early 19th century. Spanish and, consequently, North African styles also affected the maturation of Brazilian music. Later still came the tango from Argentina and a multitude of Cuban
styles, the latter being recurrent at several stages.
Indeed, the connections among the northern
Americas, Brazil, Europe and Africa have remained a constant musical factor to this day.
To describe contemporary Brazilian music is a complicated task. A simplistic attempt, though, would say that its recent reemergence on practically every continent justifiably qualifies it as one of the most dynamic and eclectic musical contributions of this decade.
Two forms of popular Brazilian music familiar to many Americans are the samba and bossa nova. While there are numerous interpretations of samba, all are intrinsically rooted in polyrhythm and polyphony: That is to say, over-lapping drumming and vocal, call-and-response, techniques. Anyone who
has seen the classic film Black Orpheus can attest to the
forcefulness of this style. But samba is not just a per cussive music. The Bahia samba, for example, incor porates tambourine, guitar, rattles and sometimes even castanets and berimbau. This, in some respects, explains its acceptance into the American jazz idiom. American jazz musicians also assisted in cross referencing bossa nova. In 1947, band leader Stan Kenton unleashed a new band that featured Brazilian guitarist Laurindo Almeida who later formed an
association with American saxophonist Stan Getz and
the rest is America bossa nova history.
These are only two of a myriad of Brazilian styles. Some of the others are less well known to Americans but are household terms among Brazilians. One is the choro. Though not stylistically similar to jazz, its instrumentation can be compared to that of jazz. Originally the choro applied to the band itself but
later it also referred to the music. It appears to have derived from the military or march-like music of German and French military orchestras of the late 19th century. Choro blossomed a few years later in the form of impassioned polkas in Rio de Janeiro. A typical choro group includes percussion and stringed instruments and fronts a woodwind ensemble of some nature flute, clarinet and saxophone are most typical. However, the choro lacks the brass instrumentation of its nearest American counterpart, New Orleans jazz.
Maxixe is another typical Brazilian musical style. Like the choro, it had its inception in the late 19th century
but reached an initial peak as a popular urban dance during World War I also in Rio de Janeiro. The choro was both a concert and dance style but maxixe developed exclusively on the dance floors, perhaps as a necessary populist extension of the choro.
Frevo is another somewhat similar style, although it apparently developed in a different location: Recife. It, too, grew from the need to accommodate concert
- or chamber music, if you will - to the dance
hall. Driven by a similar marching pulse, it included, unlike the choro, a variety of brass instruments.
There is also a style of "country'' music known as baiao which is associated with Brazil's northeastern region. Baiads meter came from country guitar rhythms and its instrumentation included and popularized the accordion.
The list goes on the length of the Amazon itself :
waltz, lundu, coco, batuque, jingo, tango, foro, xaxado and a plethora of others. Perhaps the safest way to journey through the maze of Brazilian musical styles
is to say that if it can be heard, it is played.
But finally, some mention must be made of the personalities who have guided and created the evolu tionary, and often revolutionary, moments of music in Brazil, particularly the composers, since their music is once again being rediscovered and revitalized. Heitor Villa-Lobos is unquestionably the most renowned composer of the nascent modern era. Of the modern ists, the nods probably go to Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Junior, (known colloquially as Pixinguinha) of Rio de Janeiro, and Radames Gnattali, whom many consider the "father of bossa nova;' among other titles.
Pixinguinha, as a band leader, adapted the first sambas and carnaval marches to large orchestration but it was Gnattali who linked Pixinguinha to both European classical styles and more contemporary, innovative and adventurous efforts.
There are also a number of Brazilian pop luminaries on the rise including Milton Nascimento, Djavan, Martino Davila, Maria Bethania and Gal Costa, to name a scant few. Roots-oriented groups such as Uakti are also making their presence felt. Uakti recently toured with the American vocal group Manhattan Transfer.
There are few popular Brazilian groups, however, that exhibit the depth, maturity and cultural understanding displayed by Joel Nascimento and the Brazilian Sextet. Joel Nascimento began his musical career as
a pianist but exchanged it for the mandolin, or ban dolim, in 1969. He is now considered a master of this instrument in Brazil.
Nascimento was the founder of the much-heralded group, Camerata Carioca which, with a couple of exceptions, became The Brazilian Sextet. Through the years their mentor has been Radames Gnattali who, among other notable accomplishments, transcribed music of Vivaldi and Bach specifically for this group. Gnattali's compositions and arrangements for Camerata and now The Brazilian Sextet have extended the group's repertoire from the traditional choro into other forms of classical and contemporary music often ignored by other modern musicians, Brazilian or otherwise.
Joel Nascimento best describes the process when he says that "the group stands out in Brazil because of its instrumental concept adapted to the chamber format, its use of harmony, the type of repertoire, the arrangements, the approximation to the great masters... and the group's overall musical understanding that reflects the whole purity and beauty of the traditional forms constantly in evolution'.'
When pressed for a musical choice, Joel Nascimento ironically chooses the works of Chopin, which he says involve him emotionally and reminds him of his love
of the piano.
A Philosophy of Yard: Imagining Community Change
A Practical Guide to Understanding Place, Change and
Community Problem Solving
A Preliminary Working Outline
Introduction: The Yard as Measurement of Self
The great places of the world are reflections of the past, the present and the future and how both individuals and groups perceive them. But so are the intimate moments that we pass in our own personal environments.
To me the work that I have done as a city planner and writer and the way I have perceived that work, has always, in part, been related to my fondness for and gratitude to, The Imagist Poets.....T.E. Hulme, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Ezra Pound, Amy Lowell, D.H Lawrence....all of them. Their idea that any given moment or thing will be interpreted differently by everyone is a unique metaphor for "place". Places are, indeed, poetic and that poetry begins in our own back yard.
The great places of the world, from intimate plazas like the Santa Fe Plaza to the large, regal gathering spots such as St. Peter's Square in The Vatican, or the personal meanderings of Central Park in New York City, are all experienced differently by everyone who passes through them. Yet, there is some kind of constant, some kind of design or feeling, that centers a particular place regardless of what it evokes individually. Town squares, fountains, obelisks and monuments of all persuasions are ways in which some places are "centered". But there is more to it.....lots more.
Imagist Ezra Pound put it profoundly..... the image or "place" as we are referring to it here, is "that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time." Again, that's what real places are, emotional complexity in an instant of time! How well Pound put it.
What's even more fascinating in the comparison of imagist poetry with relevant placemaking is Pound's definition of the tenets of Imagism, which we will consider in relation to the notions or tenets of placemaking that we will discuss in this manual.
Pound defined the tenets of Imagist poetry as:
1. Direct treatment of the "thing," whether subjective or objective;
2. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation;
3. As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome.
Put that into the placemaking context:
1. Direct treatment of the "place", whether subjective or objective;
2. To use absolutely no" building material or structural component" that does not contribute to the "place".
3. As regarding movement within the place, compose the area for the activity that occurs there or might occur there, not jus for strict design principles.
While places accommodate everything from "hanging out" to ceremonial events, their design, magically, allows these disparate activities to occur. In a very unique way, places that are created with precision seem to allow for both regimen and dreaming. The precision can be of a grand scale or meditative simplicity.
T.E. Hulme, the acknowledged "founder" of the Imagist Movement put it this way... "To use the language of common speech, but to employ always the exact word, not the nearly-exact, nor the merely decorative word."
We'll shift that one into placemaking vernacular as well...
"To create a place that is common in concept, but precisely focused, using exact structures, not the nearly-exact or just decorative architecture."
Placemaking is about us as individuals and also as groups of people who live, work and celebrate together. While there are many common elements, or “building blocks”, if you will, involved in placemaking. It is not formulaic as many planners and designers would have us believe. It is organic, organically derived from the natural, cultural and geographic characteristics of a certain area or specific geographic location.
The purpose of this book is to look deeper into the importance of personal "place space", that is, one's bond with the earth and their immediate surroundings, and how that relates to a person's image of themselves, their immediate environment and how they perceive and react to a larger community and to community problem solving and the extent to which they are involved in these activities. Simply stated, A Philosophy of Yard is about how one learns about the rules and realities of governance and how one gets involved in that process to solve the evolving problems of place.
Somewhere along this "placing paradigm", connections malfunction, places deteriorate and dreams become truncated. As Nigerian author Chinua Achebe wrote....."things fall apart". But there are also new connections being made, always...new places developing and new dreams being charted and, in some cases, realized. When all is said and done, imagining and creating places comes down to two important concepts; perception, how we choose to see something, someone or someplace and context, how all the parts of place work and how we fit into that.
Poet Wallace Stevens said it quite perceptively:
Anecdote of the Jar
I placed a jar in Tennessee,
And round it was, upon a hill.
It made the slovenly wilderness
Surround that hill.
The wilderness rose up to it,
And sprawled around, no longer wild.
The jar was round upon the ground
And tall and of a port in air.
It took dominion every where.
The jar was gray and bare.
This is certainly not the first foray into "imagining" place. Kevin Lynch's city planning masterpiece, The Image of the City, has been a guide for many of us in visioning principles for planning. Even more so, perhaps, is A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander et al because it provides actual "building blocks" for both imaging and actualizing basic city planning and place-making concepts. More recently, How To Turn A Place Around, has led a revival in thinking about public and private space in an urban setting.
To write about planning ideas always seems to necessitate some kind of more precise measurement (involving as it does such precise professions as architecture and engineering) to better determine what makes a great place and what makes an unsuccessful and uninviting place. Much of an endearing place is about scale and design, that is the science of geometry but another part of it is less tangible as it is about "spirit", the spirit of a place.
The Rise of Spiritics
The art and science of motivating the soul of our residents.
Don Keller's new cd fiesta
Don Keller is a rare channeler of the rhythmic, tropical sounds of soukous and Congolese rumba music. The Seattle-based guitarist and composer first learned soukous music in his 20s without prior experience with African music. For more than a decade, Don has interwoven bright lead guitar lines with hypnotic drums, earthy bass, relentless rhythm guitar, and vocals reminiscent of Franco & le TPOK Jazz, Zaiko Langa Langa, Nyboma & Kamalé Dynamique, and Kanda Bongo Man. His passion is bringing back the joyous sounds of music that reigned in Zaire from the ‘60s through the ‘80s and has worked on projects with Nyboma, Malage De Lugendo and Jeannot Bel.
In the early 2000s after hearing joyful, rhythmic African music on the radio, Don scoured the Internet looking for any examples he could find that he could learn from. This was before YouTube and much of the African music that is available in the U.S. today was not available back then. The turning point was when he heard the song Mario by Franco & le TPOK Jazz after he checked out a Rough Guide complication CD from the local library. Mario’s hypnotic, ethereal sound was unique, fresh and brought a whole new light to what was sonically possible. Throughout the 2000s Don learned and performed guitar styles in Seattle, Washington from experts of African music such as Leif Totusek and Ibrahima Camara. It was only a matter of time before he carved his own voice and identity to pursue his mission of spreading African music around the world.
Don Keller began captivating fans of African music globally when he performed soukous songs by the Congolese band Zaiko Langa Langa in 2009 on YouTube. One of the first solo soukous videos of its kind on social media, over the next 10 years, his YouTube channel gained more than 800,000 views.
In 2016, Don began composing new African music for his debut album, collaborating with Congolese musicians in Europe, including one of Kanda Bongo Man’s lead guitarists, Jeannot Bel. Don’s debut album Fiesta, released in 2019, is both a tribute to his African musical influences as well as a call to action to bring back the classic soukous and rumba sounds of the 1960s through the 1980s. Fiesta intertwines Congolese music with reggae and funk-fusion songs such as “Little Citizen” and “Spread Your Wings” to take the audience on a musical journey across a variety of rhythmic genres.
the gnarly roots of the old banyan tree
at the ground
in an age old attempt to claw their way
to the heavens
while branching out
shades the anxiety of the search
and provides shelter
from the storms and respite
to the gamely fights and scars
that always transpire underneath
the real arboreal aspiration
is manifest in the elder entanglements of girth
and the trunk full of treasures
buried in the earth
as the roots stay firmly grounded
to support the timeless expansion
of the natural urge to be higher
and of our constant wondering
just when will we find
the star seeds
that planted us here
in the first place